The most difficult step in the use of any significant computer application is undoubtedly the initial configuration. This is certainly true of Red Hat Linux. In spite of a dramatically simplified installation program, the individual acting as the installer must provide extensive system information before a working Linux system will emerge.

The two areas that present the greatest difficulty for novice installers are disk partitioning and the configuration of the X-Window system. Red Hat has done some work to make both of these areas somewhat less daunting, but conditions can easily arise that will require extensive knowledge of these subjects as well as specialized software tools.

This chapter aims to familiarize a Linux installer with the intricacies of installation, with a special focus upon the problem areas.

Planning for Installation

A minimal installation of Red Hat Linux requires relatively modest hardware. Red Hat Linux can be installed on a computer with an Intel 386 with 16MB of memory, a 120MB hard drive, and a 3.5" floppy. If a CD-ROM is not available, either a network install must be performed, or an image of the installation files must be placed upon the hard drive (CD-ROM installs are much more straightforward, and are strongly recommended for the novice installer, even it it requires machine disassembly).

If additional subsystems are installed (such as the web server, database server, or electronic mail server), more disk space and/or processor power will be required.

Understanding Disk Partitioning

A hard disk drive must be cut into partitions before Linux can be installed upon it. Linux requires at least two partitions, one for file space (usually for a second extended file system), and one for virtual memory (swap).

There can be up to four primary partitions on a hard drive. One of the primary partitions can be designated as an extended partition, which can then hold additional logical partitions. Linux can use up to fifteen logical partitions that are created within the extended partition.

Both the drive as a whole and each partition on the drive will be represented by Linux as files in the /dev directory on a running Linux system. The files differ, depending if IDE or SCSI drives are in use.

On an IDE system, usually up to four drives are available. These drives are named /dev/hda, /dev/hdb, /dev/hdc, and /dev/hdd. The files will exist, even if the drive is not physically present.

On a SCSI system, multiple drives across multiple controllers might be available. The boot drive, or the first available SCSI drive, will be known as /dev/sda. Additional drives will be known as /dev/sdb, /dev/sdc, etc. Additionally, SCSI CD-ROM devices are known as /dev/scd0 and above, and SCSI tapes are known as /dev/st0 or /dev/nst0 and above.

Please note that if an IDE hard drive is installed as /dev/hda, it must be the boot drive, and it will assume precedence over any available SCSI drives. Do not install a device as /dev/hda if the intention is to boot from a SCSI device.

Each primary partition on a drive is also a device file. The four primary partitions on the IDE boot drive are /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, /dev/hda3, and /dev/hda4. These files will exist even if the partitions have not been created. If one of the primary partitions is of the extended type, then the logical partitions which it contains can be addressed starting with /dev/hda5 (and rising to /dev/hda6, /dev/hda7, /dev/hda8, etc.). A SCSI boot drive would use the device files /dev/sda1, /dev/sda2, /dev/sda3, and /dev/sda4 for its primary partitions, and /dev/sda5 and above for its extended partitions.

This arrangement can be further complicated by IDE CD-ROMS, which appear on the system as hard drives. Most PCs place the IDE CD-ROM drive as the master IDE device on the second channel, which makes them /dev/hdc. Attempts to run fdisk on the CD-ROM device will prove ineffective. After installation, it is generally wise to set a soft link from /dev/cdrom to /dev/hdc (or whatever IDE device has been used for the CD-ROM drive). Many programs require such a link to properly control the CD-ROM drive. Programs which play audio CDs specifically will require this link, and they will also require write permission to the device file (which is granted with a command of the form “chmod 666 /dev/hdc”).

Because of the geometry of modern hard disk drives, partitions near the outer edge of a disk will have much better performance than partitions near the center. The swap partition should be allocated in such a way that it lies upon the outer edge of the disk, since swap performance can greatly influence overall system performance. Other areas of the disk which will see high use should also be located near the outer edge.

Usually, if DOS or Windows has been previously installed on a computer, there is a single partition that spans the drive holding the FAT file system. This partition must be split before Linux can be installed. This can either be done by destroying the single partition, then repartitioning the drive, or by non-destructively separating an unused portion of the partition which can then be used for Linux. The fips tool found in the dosutils directory on the CD-ROM included with this text can be used for non-destructive repartitioning, but its use is entirely unsupported and it may cause data loss. Other commercial repartitioning tools are available which may be more flexible than fips.

While Linux can recognize any combination of primary and logical partitions for its file-systems, DOS/Windows only allows a single DOS FAT file system to exist in any of the four primary partitions. The DOS version of fdisk will not allow the creation of a second DOS FAT file-system in a primary partition, and DOS will freeze on boot if Linux fdisk is used to create multiple DOS FAT file-systems in the primary partitions. However, multiple DOS FAT file-systems are allowed within the logical partitions.

Also, there can be grave difficulties in using Linux fdisk to mark DOS FAT file systems, as this section from the fdisk manual page explains:

The DOS 6.x FORMAT command looks for some information in the first sector of the data area of the partition, and treats this information as more reliable than the information in the partition table. DOS FORMAT expects DOS FDISK to clear the first 512 bytes of the data area of a partition whenever a size change occurs. DOS FORMAT will look at this extra information even if the /U flag is given -- we consider this a bug in DOS FORMAT and DOS FDISK.

The bottom line is that if you use cfdisk or fdisk to change the size of a DOS partition table entry, then you must also use dd to zero the first 512 bytes of that partition before using DOS FORMAT to format the partition. For example, if you were using cfdisk to make a DOS partition table entry for /dev/hda1, then (after exiting fdisk or cfdisk and rebooting Linux so that the partition table information is valid) you would use the command “dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda1 bs=512 count=1” to zero the first 512 bytes of the partition.

BE EXTREMELY CAREFUL if you use the dd command, since a small typo can make all of the data on your disk useless.

For best results, you should always use an OS-specific partition table program. For example, you should make DOS partitions with the DOS FDISK program and Linux partitions with the Linux fdisk or Linux cfdisk program.

Filesystem Considerations for Partitions

As has been previously stated, Linux requires at least two partitions at installation (one for the root file system, and one for swap). However, it is usually desirable to create additional file systems (and the partitions upon which they reside) to isolate different areas of the Linux system. Each separate disk partition can hold a single native filesystem.

For example, it is usually a good idea to prepare the /home directory as a separate file system. This will ensure that if /home fills, normal logging activity will continue on the root file system and many other system administration options remain open.

Following are some important directory locations which might do well when configured as separate filesystems:

/home
Creating a separate home filesystem will isolate the non-privileged users from the system areas. If more than a few, trusted users will be accessing the system, the creation of a separate /home file system is highly recommended.

/opt
Commercial software is normally installed in /opt on most major UNIX variants. Red Hat does not create an /opt directory in the normal course of installation, but the Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise SQL Server will create the directory. In this guide, however, it is recommended to install Sybase on /home to simplify the preparation of PHP.

/var
The /var areas hold system logs in /var/log. If the relevant subsystems are installed, it will also contain electronic mail in /var/spool/mail, and news spools in /var/spool/news. Each of these separate areas of /var might require a separate file system, depending upon the configuration and use of the system.

Using fdisk

Bearing the previous discussion of disk partitioning in mind, an example of a typical workstation fdisk session will be shown below.

This workstation has a 3.5 gigabyte hard disk drive. A Windows operating system is installed on the drive, and has been configured to occupy a 2 gigabyte partition (which is the maximum allowable size for the older FAT file systems).

This fdisk session will be used later in the example installation of a new Red Hat Linux system. If a new drive were added to the computer, an fdisk partitioning session similar to the one below would be required before the new drive could be used under Linux.

Be extremely careful in running fdisk on drives with an installed operating system. It is trivially easy to make a mistake that wipes out a partition and the operating system upon it. The value of backups in such a situation cannot be overemphasized.

Below is the complete fdisk session. The warning concerning the default device can be avoided if the device file is passed as an argument to fdisk (i.e. call “fdisk /dev/hda” rather than “fdisk” from the shell).

Using /dev/hda as default device!

Command (m for help): m
Command action
   a   toggle a bootable flag
   b   edit bsd disklabel
   c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
   d   delete a partition
   l   list known partition types
   m   print this menu
   n   add a new partition
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   p   print the partition table
   q   quit without saving changes
   s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
   t   change a partition's system id
   u   change display/entry units
   v   verify the partition table
   w   write table to disk and exit
   x   extra functionality (experts only)

The help command used above displays all the options for fdisk. The first thing to do in such a situation is to examine the existing partition table on the drive.

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/hda: 128 heads, 63 sectors, 847 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 8064 * 512 bytes

   Device Boot    Start       End    Blocks   Id  System
/dev/hda1   *         1       520   2096608+   6  FAT16

DOS or Windows has been installed on this drive. A 2 gigabyte partition has been allocated for the DOS area. Linux will be installed on the remainder of the drive, in an extended partition.

The Boot column indicates the active partition. The LILO loader ignores which partition is marked active, so this information is irrelevant in a normal Linux installation.

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
e
Partition number (1-4): 2
First cylinder (521-847): 521
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK ([521]-847): 847

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/hda: 128 heads, 63 sectors, 847 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 8064 * 512 bytes

   Device Boot    Start       End    Blocks   Id  System
/dev/hda1   *         1       520   2096608+   6  FAT16
/dev/hda2           521       847   1318464    5  Extended

An extended partition has now been created over the remainder of the drive. It must now be populated with Linux partitions.

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   l   logical (5 or over)
   p   primary partition (1-4)
l
First cylinder (521-847): 521
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK ([521]-847): +700M

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/hda: 128 heads, 63 sectors, 847 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 8064 * 512 bytes

   Device Boot    Start       End    Blocks   Id  System
/dev/hda1   *         1       520   2096608+   6  FAT16
/dev/hda2           521       847   1318464    5  Extended
/dev/hda5           521       698    717664+  83  Linux

A 700 megabyte Linux partition has now been created. This partition will later be used as a root file system. Notice that the extended partitions are numbered starting with /dev/hda5.

Notice also that the last cylinder of a new partition can be specified as a size offset, rather than a specific ending cylinder.

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   l   logical (5 or over)
   p   primary partition (1-4)
l
First cylinder (648-847): 699
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK ([648]-847): 830

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/hda: 128 heads, 63 sectors, 847 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 8064 * 512 bytes

   Device Boot    Start       End    Blocks   Id  System
/dev/hda1   *         1       520   2096608+   6  FAT16
/dev/hda2           521       847   1318464    5  Extended
/dev/hda5           521       698    717664+  83  Linux
/dev/hda6           699       830    532192+  83  Linux

A new partition has been created that is slightly over 500 megabytes. In this case, it will be mounted on the /home directory. This file system will have better performance than any of the others since it lies near the outer edge of the disk.

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   l   logical (5 or over)
   p   primary partition (1-4)
l
First cylinder (816-847): 831
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK ([816]-847): 847

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/hda: 128 heads, 63 sectors, 847 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 8064 * 512 bytes

   Device Boot    Start       End    Blocks   Id  System
/dev/hda1   *         1       520   2096608+   6  FAT16
/dev/hda2           521       847   1318464    5  Extended
/dev/hda5           521       698    717664+  83  Linux
/dev/hda6           699       830    532192+  83  Linux
/dev/hda7           831       847     68512+  82  Linux

A final 64 megabyte partition has been created which is intended for use as swap space.

128 megabytes is the largest that any single swap partition can be. If larger swap partitions are created, the extra space will go to waste.

The fact that 17 cylinders translates to approximately 64 megabytes could be discovered by adding a +64M partition, recording the number of cylinders that it consumes, then deleting that partition. The size of the /home file-system is then resolved by subtracting the cylinder size of the swap partition from the total remaining cylinders.

However, before the swap partition can be initialized, it must be tagged for use as swap.

Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-7): 7
Hex code (type L to list codes): L

 0  Empty           16  Hidden FAT16    61  SpeedStor       a6  OpenBSD        
 1  FAT12           17  Hidden HPFS/NTF 63  GNU HURD or Sys a7  NeXTSTEP       
 2  XENIX root      18  AST Windows swa 64  Novell Netware  b7  BSDI fs        
 3  XENIX usr       24  NEC DOS         65  Novell Netware  b8  BSDI swap      
 4  FAT16 <32M      3c  PartitionMagic  70  DiskSecure Mult c1  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 5  Extended        40  Venix 80286     75  PC/IX           c4  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 6  FAT16           41  PPC PReP Boot   80  Old Minix       c6  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 7  HPFS/NTFS       42  SFS             81  Minix / old Lin c7  Syrinx         
 8  AIX             4d  QNX4.x          82  Linux swap      db  CP/M / CTOS / .
 9  AIX bootable    4e  QNX4.x 2nd part 83  Linux           e1  DOS access     
 a  OS/2 Boot Manag 4f  QNX4.x 3rd part 84  OS/2 hidden C:  e3  DOS R/O        
 b  Win95 FAT32     50  OnTrack DM      85  Linux extended  e4  SpeedStor      
 c  Win95 FAT32 (LB 51  OnTrack DM6 Aux 86  NTFS volume set eb  BeOS fs        
 e  Win95 FAT16 (LB 52  CP/M            87  NTFS volume set f1  SpeedStor      
 f  Win95 Ext'd (LB 53  OnTrack DM6 Aux 93  Amoeba          f4  SpeedStor      
10  OPUS            54  OnTrackDM6      94  Amoeba BBT      f2  DOS secondary  
11  Hidden FAT12    55  EZ-Drive        a0  IBM Thinkpad hi fe  LANstep        
12  Compaq diagnost 56  Golden Bow      a5  BSD/386         ff  BBT            
14  Hidden FAT16 <3 5c  Priam Edisk
Hex code (type L to list codes): 82
Changed system type of partition 7 to 82 (Linux swap)

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/hda: 128 heads, 63 sectors, 847 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 8064 * 512 bytes

   Device Boot    Start      End    Blocks   Id  System
/dev/hda1   *         1      520   2096608+   6  FAT16
/dev/hda2           521      847   1318464    5  Extended
/dev/hda5           521      698    717664+  83  Linux
/dev/hda6           699      830    532192+  83  Linux
/dev/hda7           831      847     68512+  82  Linux swap

The swap partition has been marked, and all that remains is to write out the changes to the partition table.

Command (m for help): w

Pre-installation Concerns with X11

Generally speaking, in order to configure X-Windows for a new video monitor, the horizontal and vertical scanning rates of the monitor must be known (assuming that the video card is supported).

This information is usually in the manual that originally shipped with the monitor. Do not throw such manuals away. The rates can also sometimes be obtained from the monitor manufacturer's website.

The horizontal rates are usually listed in KiloHertz, and the vertical rates are usually listed in Hertz. The rates may be specified ether as discrete values, or as a range of frequencies.

For example, a Mitsubishi Diamond Plus 72 has horizontal frequencies of 30 to 86 KHz, and vertical frequencies of 50 to 130 Hz.

The Xconfigurator utility distributed with Red Hat Linux 6.0 contains the scanning rates for the following monitors:

ADI DMC-2304
ADI Duo
ADI MicroScan 17
ADI MicroScan 17X
ADI MicroScan 2E
ADI MicroScan 3E+
ADI MicroScan 3E
ADI MicroScan 3V
ADI MicroScan 4A
ADI MicroScan 4G
ADI MicroScan 4GP
ADI MicroScan 5G
ADI MicroScan 5P/5P+
ADI MicroScan 5T
ADI MicroScan 5V
ADI MicroScan 6P
ADI MicroScan G70
ADI MicroScan P55
ADI ProVista 14
ADI ProVista E30
ADI ProVista E40
ADI ProVista E66
AOC 4N Series
AOC 4V & 5E Series
AOC 5V & 5G Series
AOC 7G Series
AOC 7V Series
AOC 9G Series
AOC-15
AT&T 14 in. Color Economy
AT&T 14 in. Color Value
AT&T 14 in. Mono
AT&T 15 in. Color
AT&T 17 in. Color Professional
AT&T 17 in. Color Value
AT&T CRT-365
AT&T CRT-395
Acer AcerView 11D
Acer AcerView 15P
Acer AcerView 33
Acer AcerView 33D
Acer AcerView 33DL
Acer AcerView 33s
Acer AcerView 34T
Acer AcerView 34TL
Acer AcerView 34Ts
Acer AcerView 34e
Acer AcerView 35
Acer AcerView 35c
Acer AcerView 54e
Acer AcerView 54s
Acer AcerView 55
Acer AcerView 55L
Acer AcerView 55c
Acer AcerView 55e
Acer AcerView 56L
Acer AcerView 56c
Acer AcerView 56e
Acer AcerView 56i
Acer AcerView 56is
Acer AcerView 56s
Acer AcerView 7015
Acer AcerView 76N
Acer AcerView 76c
Acer AcerView 76e
Acer AcerView 76i
Acer AcerView 76ie
Acer AcerView 76is
Acer AcerView 76t
Acer AcerView 77is
Acer AcerView 78i
Acer AcerView 78ie
Acer AcerView 79t
Acer AcerView 98i
Acer AcerView 99D
Apollo 1280x1024-68Hz
Apollo 1280x1024-70Hz
Axion CL-1566
CTX 1451
CTX 1451ES
CTX 1451GM
CTX 1462GM
CTX 1551
CTX 1562
CTX 1562ES
CTX 1562GM
CTX 1565
CTX 1565GM
CTX 1765
CTX 1765GM
CTX 1785
CTX 1785GM
CTX 2085
CTX 2185
CTX CPS-1460
CTX CPS-1560
CTX CPS-1750
CTX CPS-1760
CTX CPS-2160
CTX CPS-2180
CTX CVP-5439
CTX CVP-5468
CTX CVP-5468NI
CTX CVP-5468NL
CTX CVS-3436
CTX CVS-3450
CTX Multiscan 3436
CTX-1561
Chuntex CTX CPS-1560/LR
Compaq 1024 Monitor
Compaq 151FS Monitor
Compaq 171FS Monitor
Compaq P110 Monitor
Compaq P1610 Monitor
Compaq P50 Monitor
Compaq P75 Monitor
Compaq Qvision 172 Monitor
Compaq Qvision 200 Monitor
Compaq Qvision 210 Monitor
Compaq TFT450 Monitor
Compaq TFT500 Monitor
Compaq V50 Monitor
Compaq V75 Monitor
Compaq V75
Compaq V90 Monitor
Compudyne KD-1500N
Cornerstone - Color 20/70
Cornerstone - Color 20/77
Cornerstone - Color 21/75
Cornerstone - Color 40/95
Cornerstone - Color 45/101sf
Cornerstone - Color 50/101sf, 21/81
Cornerstone - c1000, c1001, Color 50/95
Cornerstone - c900
Cornerstone - p1400
Cornerstone - p1500
Cornerstone - p1600, Color 50/115sf, 50/115
Cornerstone - p1700
Cornerstone - v300
DEC PCXBV-KA/KB
Dell 1024i-P/1024i-Color
Dell 1024i
Dell Eizo 9080i
Dell GPD-16C
Dell GPD-19C
Dell Hewitt
Dell Super VGA Colour
Dell Super VGA DL 1428 I/L
Dell Super VGA Jostens
Dell Super VGA
Dell UGA DL 1460 NI
Dell Ultrascan 14C-E
Dell Ultrascan 14C-EN
Dell Ultrascan 14C
Dell Ultrascan 14ES
Dell Ultrascan 14LR
Dell Ultrascan 14XE
Dell Ultrascan 15ES/15ES-P
Dell Ultrascan 15FS-N/15FS-EN
Dell Ultrascan 15FS/15FS-E
Dell Ultrascan 15LR
Dell Ultrascan 15TE
Dell Ultrascan 17ES
Dell Ultrascan 17FS-ELR
Dell Ultrascan 17FS-EN
Dell Ultrascan 17FS-LR
Dell Ultrascan 17FS-N
Dell Ultrascan 21FS
Dell Ultrascan 21TE
Dell Ultrascan V17X
Dell V15X
Dell V17X
Dell VC15 Colour
Dell VGA 800
Dell VGA Color/Color Plus
Dell VGA Monochrome
Dell VS14/15
Dell VS17
Dell VS17X
Dell Vi14X
Digital 14 in. Color (FR-PCXBV-PF)
Digital 14 in. Color (FR-PCXBV-SA)
Digital 15 in. Color (FR-PCXBV-PC)
Digital 15 in. Color (FR-PCXBV-SC)
Digital 17 in. Color (FR-PCXAV-EC)
Digital 17 in. Color (FR-PCXBV-KA)
Digital 21 in. Color (FR-PCXAV-HA)
EIZO FlexScan 9080i
EIZO FlexScan FX-B5
EIZO FlexScan FX-C5
EIZO FlexScan FX-C6
EIZO FlexScan FX-E7
EIZO FlexScan T660
EIZO FlexScan TX-C7
EIZO FlexScan TX-C7S
EIZO FlexScan TX-D7S
ELSA GDM-17E40
ESCOM MONO-LCD-screen
Gateway CrystalScan 1572FS
Gateway CrystalScan 1776LE
Generic Monitor
Generic Multisync
GoldStar LG StudioWorks20i
GoldStar LG StudioWorks56i
GoldStar LG StudioWorks56m
GoldStar LG StudioWorks74m
GoldStar LG StudioWorks76i
GoldStar LG StudioWorks76m
GoldStar LG StudioWorks78T
GoldStar LG StudioWorks78i
HP D1187A 20-inch Display
HP D1188A 20-inch Display
HP D1192A VGA Monochrome 14-inch Display
HP D1193A Ultra VGA 17-inch
HP D1194A SVGA 14-inch Display
HP D1195A Ergo-SVGA 14-inch Display
HP D1196A Ergo Ultra VGA 15-inch Display
HP D1197A Color VGA 14-inch Display
HP D1198A SVGA 14-inch Display
HP D1199A Ultra VGA 1600 21-inch Display
HP D1815A 1024 Low Emissions 14-inch Display
HP D2800A Ultra VGA 1600 21-inch Display
HP D2801A VGA Monochrome 14-inch Display
HP D2802A SVGA 14-inch Display
HP D2804A Super VGA and 1024i 14-inch Display
HP D2805A Ergo 1024 14-inch Display
HP D2806A Ergo Ultra VGA 15-inch Display
HP D2807A Ultra VGA 1280 17-inch Display
HP D2808A 1024 Low Emissions 15-inch Display
HP D2814A Super VGA and 1024I 14-inch Display
HP D3857A Multi Media 15-inch Display
HP D3858A Multi Media 14-inch Display
Highscreen LE 1024
Hitachi 20-AP
Hitachi 20-APF
Hitachi 20-AS
Hitachi 21-AP
Hitachi Accuvue GX17L
Hitachi Accuvue GX20
Hitachi Accuvue GX20H
Hitachi Accuvue GX21
Hitachi Accuvue UX4717
Hitachi Accuvue UX4721
Hitachi Accuvue UX4921
Hitachi Accuvue UX6821
Hitachi CM1587M
Hitachi CM1711M
Hitachi CM1721M
Hitachi CM1786M
Hitachi CM2011M
Hitachi CM2096M
Hitachi CM2110M
Hitachi CM2111M
Hitachi CM2112M
Hitachi CM2198M
Hitachi CM2199M
Hitachi CM500
Hitachi CM600
Hitachi CM611
Hitachi CM620
Hitachi CM630
Hitachi CM701
Hitachi CM751
Hitachi CM800
Hitachi CM801
Hitachi CM802
Hitachi CM803
Hitachi HM-5219
Hitachi HM1764
Hitachi HM1782
Hitachi HM4020
Hitachi HM4021
Hitachi HM4721
Hitachi HM4820
Hitachi HM4821
Hitachi HM4921
Hitachi HM6421
Hitachi HM6821
Hyundai DeluxScan 14S
Hyundai DeluxScan 15 Pro
Hyundai DeluxScan 15B
Hyundai DeluxScan 15G+
Hyundai DeluxScan 15G
Hyundai DeluxScan 17 Pro
Hyundai DeluxScan 17B+
Hyundai DeluxScan 17B
Hyundai DeluxScan 17MB/17MS
Hyundai hcm-421E
IBM 2116 MM55 Multimedia
IBM 2128 MM75 Multimedia
IBM 2235 C50
IBM 2237 C71
IBM 6540 G42
IBM 6541 G51
IBM 6546 G52 & G54
IBM 6547 G72 & G74
IBM 6549 G94
IBM 6556 P72
IBM 6557 P92
IBM 6558 P202
IBM 8507
IBM 9514-B TFT Panel
IBM 9514-B TFT Panel
IBM 9514-B TFT Panel
Iiyama A101GT, VisionMasterPro 501
Iiyama A102GT, VisionMasterPro 502
Iiyama A701GT, VisionMasterPro 400
Iiyama MF-8221E/T, VisionMaster
Iiyama MF-8515G, VisionMaster
Iiyama MF-8617E/T, VisionMaster
Iiyama MF-8617ES, VisionMaster
Iiyama MF-8721E, VisionMaster
Iiyama MT-9017E/T, VisionMasterPro
Iiyama MT-9021E/T, VisionMasterPro
Iiyama MT-9221, VisionMasterPro
Iiyama S101GT, VisionMaster 501
Iiyama S102GT, VisionMaster 502
Iiyama S701GT, VisionMaster 400
Iiyama S702GT, VisionMaster 400
Iiyama S901GT, VisionMaster 450
Iiyama TXA3601GT, Prolite36
Iiyama TXA3602GT, Prolite36
Iiyama TXA3811/3821HT, Prolite38
Impression 7 Plus 7728D
LCD Panel 1024x768
LCD Panel 640x480
LCD Panel 800x600
Lite-On CM1414E
MAG 410V2
MAG 510V2
MAG 710V2
MAG 720V2
MAG AX1595
MAG AX15FG
MAG AX1795
MAG AX1795E
MAG AX17FG
MAG D410
MAG DJ530
MAG DJ700
MAG DJ700E
MAG DJ702
MAG DJ702E
MAG DJ704
MAG DJ707
MAG DJ707E
MAG DJ710
MAG DJ717
MAG DJ800
MAG DJ920
MAG DX1495
MAG DX1595
MAG DX1595N
MAG DX1595V
MAG DX15F
MAG DX15FG
MAG DX15N
MAG DX15T
MAG DX1795
MAG DX1795E
MAG DX17F
MAG DX17FP
MAG DX17Fe
MAG DX17N
MAG DX17S
MAG DX17SA
MAG DX17SP
MAG DX17T
MAG DX500AV
MAG DX500T
MAG DX700T
MAG DX715T
MAG MX15F
MAG MX17D
MAG MX17F
MAG MX17FP
MAG MX17S
MAG MX17SA
MAG MX17SG
MAG MX21F
MAG MXE1595
MAG MXE17S
MAG MXP17D
MAG MXP17F
MAG MXP17FE
MAG MXP17S
MAG VEI17
MAG XJ500T
MAG XJ530
MAG XJ700T
MAG XJ707
MAG XJ717
Magnavox MB4010(14inch/CM1300)
Magnavox MB5314(15inch/CM1200)
Magnavox MB7000(17inch/CM6800)
Magnavox MV5011(15inch/CM1300)
MegaImage 17
Mitsubishi Diamond Plus 100 (TFW1105)
Mitsubishi Diamond Plus 70 (TF-7700P)
Mitsubishi Diamond Plus 71 (TFV6708)
Mitsubishi Diamond Plus 72 (TFV8705)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 1000 (TFX1105)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 1010 (TUX1107)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 14 (FW6405)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 14 Plus (SD45xx)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 15FS (SD56xx)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 17 (TFS6705)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 17TX (TFG8705)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 20 (HL7955)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 20X (FR8905)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 21FS (FFL7165)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 21T (THZ8155)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 21TX (THN9105)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 26H (HJ6505)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 26M (HC3505)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 37 (XC3725)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 67TXV (TFV6705)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 700 (TFK9705)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 87TXM (TFM8705)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 900 (NFJ9905)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 91TXM (TFW9105)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro SVGA (SD43xx)
Mitsubishi Diamond Pro VGA (SD41xx)
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan 15FS (SD55xx)
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan 15HX (SD57xx)
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan 15VX (SD58xx)
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan 17FS (FFY7705)
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan 17HX (FFF8705)
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan 20 (HL6945/55)
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan 20H (FR8905)
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan 20M (HC3925)
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan 21 (FFL7165)
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan 37 (XC3715)
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan 50 (SD5904)
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan 70 (SD7704)
Mitsubishi Diamond Scan 90e (FFT9905)
Mitsubishi LCD 40 (LXA420W)
Mitsubishi LCD 50 (LXA520W)
Mitsubishi MegaView 29 (AM2752)
Mitsubishi MegaView 33 (XC3315)
Mitsubishi MegaView 37 (XC3716)
Mitsubishi MegaView 37 Plus (XC3717)
Mitsubishi MegaView Pro 29 (XC2930)
Mitsubishi MegaView Pro 37 (XC3730)
Mitsubishi MegaView Pro 42 (AM4201)
Mitsubishi Precise Point 5800
Mitsubishi Precise Point 8705
Mitsubishi Precise Point 8905
Mitsubishi SpectraView 1000
Mitsubishi SpectraView 700
Mitsubishi The Big Easy 1281 (VS1281)
Mitsubishi The Big Easy G1A (LVPG1A)
Mitsubishi VS1280 Projector
NEC LCD1280
NEC LCD1280
NEC LCD200
NEC LCD300
NEC LCD300
NEC MultiSync 2V
NEC MultiSync 3D
NEC MultiSync 3FGe
NEC MultiSync 3FGx
NEC MultiSync 3V
NEC MultiSync 4D
NEC MultiSync 4FG
NEC MultiSync 4FGe
NEC MultiSync 50
NEC MultiSync 70
NEC MultiSync A500+
NEC MultiSync A500
NEC MultiSync A700+
NEC MultiSync A700
NEC MultiSync A900
NEC MultiSync C400
NEC MultiSync C500
NEC MultiSync E1100+
NEC MultiSync E1100
NEC MultiSync E500
NEC MultiSync E700
NEC MultiSync E750
NEC MultiSync E900+
NEC MultiSync E900
NEC MultiSync FP1350
NEC MultiSync FP950
NEC MultiSync LCD1500M
NEC MultiSync LCD1510
NEC MultiSync LCD1510V
NEC MultiSync LCD1810
NEC MultiSync LCD2000
NEC MultiSync LCD2010
NEC MultiSync LCD400
NEC MultiSync LCD400V
NEC MultiSync M500
NEC MultiSync M700
NEC MultiSync P1150
NEC MultiSync P1250+
NEC MultiSync P750
NEC MultiSync XE15
NEC MultiSync XE17
NEC MultiSync XV14
NEC MultiSync XV15+
NEC MultiSync XV15
NEC MultiSync XV17+ (-2)
NEC Multisync 5FG
NEC Multisync 5FGe
NEC Multisync 5FGp
NEC Multisync 6FG
NEC Multisync 6FGp
Nanao F340i-W
Nanao F550i-w
Nanao F550i
Nokia 300Xa
Nokia 400Xa
Nokia 417TV
Nokia 445G
Nokia 445M
Nokia 445R
Nokia 445X
Nokia 445Xav
Nokia 445Xavc
Nokia 445Xi
Nokia 445XiPlus
Nokia 445Xpro125
Nokia 445Xpro
Nokia 446XS
Nokia 446Xpro
Nokia 446Xt
Nokia 447B
Nokia 447DTC
Nokia 447E
Nokia 447K
Nokia 447KA
Nokia 447KC
Nokia 447L
Nokia 447M
Nokia 447S
Nokia 447V
Nokia 447W
Nokia 447X
Nokia 447XS
Nokia 447Xa
Nokia 447Xav
Nokia 447Xavc
Nokia 447Xi
Nokia 447XiPlus
Nokia 447Xpro
Nokia 447Za
Nokia 447Zi
Nokia 447i
Nokia 449E
Nokia 449M
Nokia 449X
Nokia 449Xa
Nokia 449XaPlus
Nokia 449Xi
Nokia 449XiPlus
Nokia 44BS
Nokia 500Xa
Nokia 800Xi
Optiquest Q100
Optiquest Q41
Optiquest Q51
Optiquest Q53
Optiquest Q71
Optiquest V115
Optiquest V115T
Optiquest V641
Optiquest V655
Optiquest V773
Optiquest V775
Optiquest V95
Panasonic C1491
Panasonic C1591E
Panasonic C1591EA
Panasonic C1791E
Panasonic C1791Ei
Panasonic C1792P
Panasonic C2192P
Panasonic E15
Panasonic E21
Panasonic P15
Panasonic P17
Panasonic P21
Panasonic PF17
Panasonic PM15
Panasonic PM17
Panasonic Panamedia-15
Panasonic Panamedia-17
Panasonic S15
Panasonic S17
Panasonic S21
Panasonic SL70
Panasonic TX-1713MA series
Panasonic TX-D1562F series
Panasonic TX-D1562NMF
Panasonic TX-D1563P series
Panasonic TX-D1731 series
Panasonic TX-D1732 series
Panasonic TX-D1733 series
Panasonic TX-D1734 series
Panasonic TX-D1734F series
Panasonic TX-D1751 series
Panasonic TX-D1752 series
Panasonic TX-D1753 series
Panasonic TX-D2051 series
Panasonic TX-D2131 series
Panasonic TX-D2131P series
Panasonic TX-D2151 series
Panasonic TX-D2162 series
Panasonic TX-D2171 series
Panasonic TX-D4L31-J
Panasonic TX-D7P53 series
Panasonic TX-T1562CJ1
Panasonic TX-T1562P series
Panasonic TX-T1563F series
Panasonic TX-T1563PT1
Panasonic TX-T1565P series
Panasonic TX-T1567P series
Philips 104B(14inch/CM1300)
Philips 105B(15inch/CM1200)
Philips 105B(15inch/CM1300)
Philips 105S(15inch/CM1300)
Philips 107B(17inch/CM6800)
Philips 107B(17inch/CM6800)
Philips 107S(17inch/CM1300)
Philips 107S(17inch/CM6800)
Philips 1764DC
Philips 200B(20inch/CM5600)
Philips 200T(20inch/CM0700)
Philips 201B(21inch/CM0770)
Philips 201B(PRODUCT ID 21B58...)
Philips 7BM749
Philips Brilliance 105(15inch/CM2200)
Philips Brilliance 107(17inch/CM8800)
Philips Brilliance 107(PRODUCT ID 17A58...)
Philips Brilliance 109(PRODUCT ID 19A58...)
Philips Brilliance 201(21inch/CM1700)
Philips Brilliance 201(PRODUCT ID 21A58...)
Philips Brilliance 201CS(21inch/CM0900)
Philips Brilliance AX4500(14.5 LCD MONITOR)
Philips Brilliance AX4500(14.5 LCD MONITOR)
Princeton Graphic Systems Arcadia AR2.7
Princeton Graphic Systems Arcadia AR2.7AV
Princeton Graphic Systems Arcadia AR3.1
Princeton Graphic Systems Arcadia AR3.1AV
Princeton Graphic Systems C2001
Princeton Graphic Systems EO14
Princeton Graphic Systems EO15
Princeton Graphic Systems EO17
Princeton Graphic Systems EO2000
Princeton Graphic Systems EO40
Princeton Graphic Systems EO500
Princeton Graphic Systems EO50
Princeton Graphic Systems EO70
Princeton Graphic Systems EO710
Princeton Graphic Systems EO72
Princeton Graphic Systems EO74/74T
Princeton Graphic Systems EO75
Princeton Graphic Systems EO76/76T
Princeton Graphic Systems EO900
Princeton Graphic Systems EO90
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 14
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 14ni
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 15
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 17+
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 17
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 20
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 40
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 41
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 50
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 51
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 70F
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 71
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 72
Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra 80
Quantex TE1564M - Super View 1280
Relisys RE1564
Sampo alphascan-17
Samsung SyncMaster 15GLe
Samsung SyncMaster 15GLi
Samsung SyncMaster 15M
Samsung SyncMaster 17GLi
Samsung SyncMaster 17GLsi
Samsung SyncMaster 3
Samsung SyncMaster 3Ne
Samsung SyncMaster 500b/500Mb
Samsung SyncMaster 500p/500Mp
Samsung SyncMaster 500s/500Ms
Samsung SyncMaster 700b/700Mb
Samsung SyncMaster 700p/700Mp
Samsung SyncMaster 700s/700Ms
Samtron 5B/5MB
Samtron 5E/5ME
Samtron 7E/7ME/7B/7MB
Samtron SC-428PS/PSL
Samtron SC-428PT/PTL
Samtron SC-528MDL
Samtron SC-528TXL
Samtron SC-528UXL
Samtron SC-726GXL
Samtron SC-728FXL
Sony CPD-100ES
Sony CPD-100EST
Sony CPD-100GS
Sony CPD-100GST
Sony CPD-100SF
Sony CPD-100SFB
Sony CPD-100SFT
Sony CPD-100SX
Sony CPD-100VS
Sony CPD-101VS iGPE
Sony CPD-110GS/110EST
Sony CPD-120AS
Sony CPD-120VS
Sony CPD-15ES2
Sony CPD-15ES
Sony CPD-15SF2
Sony CPD-15SF8
Sony CPD-15SF9
Sony CPD-15SX1
Sony CPD-17C1
Sony CPD-17ES2
Sony CPD-17GS
Sony CPD-17MS
Sony CPD-17SF2
Sony CPD-17SF8
Sony CPD-17SF8R
Sony CPD-17SF9
Sony CPD-200ES
Sony CPD-200EST
Sony CPD-200GS
Sony CPD-200GST
Sony CPD-200SF
Sony CPD-200SFT
Sony CPD-200SX
Sony CPD-201VS iGPE
Sony CPD-20SF2
Sony CPD-20SF2T5
Sony CPD-20SF2T
Sony CPD-20SF3
Sony CPD-210GS/210EST
Sony CPD-210SFB
Sony CPD-220AS
Sony CPD-220GS/17GS2
Sony CPD-220VS
Sony CPD-300SFT5
Sony CPD-300SFT
Sony CPD-420GS/420GST/19GS2
Sony CPD-520GS/520GST/21GS2
Sony CPD-L133
Sony CPD-L150
Sony GDM-17SE2T(NEW)
Sony GDM-17SE2T5
Sony GDM-17SE2T
Sony GDM-200PS
Sony GDM-200PST
Sony GDM-20SE2T5
Sony GDM-20SE2T
Sony GDM-20SE3T
Sony GDM-20SHT(NEW)
Sony GDM-20SHT
Sony GDM-400PS/400PST/19PS
Sony GDM-500PS/500PST/21PS
Sony GDM-F400
Sony GDM-F500
Sony GDM-W900
Sony VMU-1000
Sun 17-inch 447Z
TARGA TM 1710 D
TAXAN 875
Tandberg ErgoScan 21c
Tatung CM14UHE
Tatung CM14UHR
Tatung CM14UHS
Unisys-19
ViewSonic 14E
ViewSonic 14ES
ViewSonic 15
ViewSonic 15E
ViewSonic 15ES-2
ViewSonic 15ES
ViewSonic 15EX
ViewSonic 15G-2
ViewSonic 15G
ViewSonic 15GA-2
ViewSonic 15GA
ViewSonic 15GS-2
ViewSonic 15GS-3
ViewSonic 15GS
ViewSonic 17
ViewSonic 17E
ViewSonic 17EA
ViewSonic 17G
ViewSonic 17GA-2
ViewSonic 17GA
ViewSonic 17GS-2
ViewSonic 17GS
ViewSonic 17PS-2
ViewSonic 17PS
ViewSonic 1
ViewSonic 20
ViewSonic 20G-2
ViewSonic 20G
ViewSonic 20PS
ViewSonic 21
ViewSonic 21PS-2
ViewSonic 21PS
ViewSonic 29GA
ViewSonic 2
ViewSonic 3
ViewSonic 4
ViewSonic 4E
ViewSonic 5+
ViewSonic 5
ViewSonic 5E
ViewSonic 6
ViewSonic 6E
ViewSonic 6FS
ViewSonic 7
ViewSonic 7E
ViewSonic 8
ViewSonic E40
ViewSonic E41
ViewSonic E51
ViewSonic E641-2
ViewSonic E641
ViewSonic E651
ViewSonic E655-2
ViewSonic E655-3
ViewSonic E655
ViewSonic E71
ViewSonic E771-2
ViewSonic E771
ViewSonic EA771
ViewSonic EA771B
ViewSonic G653-2
ViewSonic G653
ViewSonic G655
ViewSonic G771
ViewSonic G773-2
ViewSonic G773
ViewSonic G790
ViewSonic G800
ViewSonic G810-2
ViewSonic G810
ViewSonic GA655
ViewSonic GA771
ViewSonic GS771
ViewSonic GT770
ViewSonic GT775
ViewSonic GT800
ViewSonic MB110
ViewSonic MB50
ViewSonic MB70
ViewSonic MB90
ViewSonic P655
ViewSonic P775
ViewSonic P810-3
ViewSonic P810-A
ViewSonic P810-E
ViewSonic P810-ER
ViewSonic P810-MR
ViewSonic P810
ViewSonic P815
ViewSonic P817
ViewSonic PJ1000
ViewSonic PJ800
ViewSonic PJ820
ViewSonic PJL802
ViewSonic PS775
ViewSonic PS790
ViewSonic PT770
ViewSonic PT771
ViewSonic PT775
ViewSonic PT810-2
ViewSonic PT810-3
ViewSonic PT810
ViewSonic PT813-1
ViewSonic S6E
ViewSonic VP140
ViewSonic VP150
ViewSonic VPA138
ViewSonic VPA145
ViewSonic VPA150

Xconfigurator will be run as part of the install process, and it can also be executed post-installation should additional configuration be necessary.

If the monitor to be installed is in the above list, installation should be simple. If not, it will be necessary to call Xconfigurator after installation with special parameters.

If the horizontal and vertical scanning rates absolutely cannot be determined, choose either the “Generic Multisync” or the “Generic Monitor” listed above. However, before such a choice is made, attention should be paid to the following warning from XFree86:

“It is VERY IMPORTANT that you do not specify a monitor type with a horizontal sync range that is beyond the capabilities of your monitor. If in doubt, choose a conservative setting.”

The reason for this warning is that it is actually possible to physically damage some older monitors by driving them with scan rates that are beyond the design tolerances. Do not configure XFree86 to use scan rates that are higher than your monitor's specifications, or physical damage to the monitor could result.

The risk only surfaces if the startx command is used at the console, or if the system enters init 5 and activates the xdm login console. There is no danger if neither of these commands are run. To completely remove any danger, delete the /etc/X11/XF86Config file, which will prevent X-Windows from starting at all (some server machines have no need for X-Windows).

In the case of an unknown monitor (such as the above Gateway), the Xconfigurator command could be run by the root user with the following arguments:

Xconfigurator --kickstart --hsync "30-86" --vsync "50-130"

This command writes an /etc/X11/XF86Config file with conservative settings. The startx command could then be run after installation.

For the utmost of control over the configuration of X-Windows, use the xf86config utility, rather than Xconfigurator. Because of its complexity, xf86config is not covered in this text.

Once X Windows has been properly configured, the X server can be started with various color bit depths with the following commands:

startx
This command starts X-Windows with the default color bit depth. This is usually 256-color, 8 bits per pixel. Xconfigurator might choose a different default color depth, however.

startx -- -bpp 8
This command starts X-Windows in 256-color color mode, with 8 bits per pixel. This color depth is not very good, and most window managers will quickly exhaust the available colors.

startx -- -bpp 16
This command starts X-Windows in 65,536-color color mode, with 16 bits per pixel. This is the most popular color depth.

startx -- -bpp 24
This command starts X-Windows in 16,777,216-color color mode. This mode has much more precise color reproduction, but is much more processor-intensive.

Warnings for SCSI Systems

Nearly every Linux kernel has built-in support for IDE devices, including hard disks and CD-ROM drives. This is not so for SCSI devices.

Drivers for various brands of SCSI cards are stored as modules which are loaded dynamically by the kernel as it boots. Unless arrangements are made for the module to be loaded, the entire SCSI system will be unavailable to a generic kernel.

This is why it is so important for Linux systems with SCSI devices to create boot images (although it is a good idea for all systems in general).

It is wholeheartedly recommended that the opportunity to make a boot floppy be taken when it is presented in the initial installation. A boot floppy can be created later by using the mkbootdisk command.

A small amount of effort at installation time can save great effort when a system won't boot. Make the boot floppy.

A Sample Installation

Before installation can begin, the required boot disk images must usually be written to blank floppies. This operation is accomplished through either a DOS or UNIX environment.

The layout of the boot images for Red Hat 6.0 has changed substantially from earlier releases.

The following boot images are available on the CD-ROM included with this text:

boot.img
This image is used for all types of disk media installs (including CD-ROM).

bootnet.img
This image is used to install Red Hat Linux over a network connection. A variety of protocols are supported, including NFS, FTP, SMB, and HTTP.

pcmcia.img
This image is required when PCMCIA (PC-Card) devices will play any role in the installation. Notebook computers usually require this image.

However, if the BIOS of the PC supports the “El Torito” bootable CD format, the creation of the boot floppies might not be necessary. Simply place the Red Hat CD in the drive, set the BIOS to boot from the CD (if applicable), and attempt to boot normally. If a LILO boot prompt appears, and PCMCIA services are not required, then the creation of the boot floppies can be safely skipped.

If it is necessary to create a set of boot floppies, the instructions for both DOS and UNIX follow:

UNIX
Under most UNIX environments, the images can be written with the dd command. The CD must be mounted as an active file system. Under Linux, if a /cdrom directory exists, one of the following mount commands will usually mount a CD:
mount /dev/scd0 /cdrom
mount /dev/hdc /cdrom
mount /dev/hdb /cdrom

Once the CD is mounted, the following dd commands will write the image to a floppy drive:
dd if=/cdrom/images/boot.img of=/dev/fd0 bs=1440k
(The boot.img file can also be downloaded from a number of FTP sites, if the CD is not available.)

DOS
Under DOS with CD-ROM support, place the CD in the drive. Open a DOS shell if a Windows variant is in use. Change the active drive to the CD (usually by entering “d:” and pressing enter), then enter the following commands:
cd dosutils
rawrite

When prompted, write the “\images\boot.img” file to the “a:” drive, or whatever other image is required for the local installation.

Once the images are in hand, boot from the boot floppy. Press return to pass the LILO boot prompt.

As a note for the technically-minded, the boot floppy is in MS-DOS format. The vmlinuz file can be replaced with a specially-compiled kernel image as long as the new image fits in the free space available on the floppy. This is one way to build specific device support into the installation session, in the unlikely event that it is necessary.

Once the Linux kernel has booted (which may take some time), a welcome message will be presented:

Welcome to Red Hat Linux

          ********************** Red Hat Linux ************************
          *                                                           *
	  * Welcome to Red Hat Linux!                                 *
          *                                                           *
          * This installation process is outlined in detail in the    *
          * Official Red Hat Linux Installation Guide available from  *
          * Red Hat Software. If you have access to this manual, you  *
          * should read the installation section before continuing.   *
          *                                                           *
          * If you have purchased Official Red Hat Linux, be sure to  *
          * register your purchase through our web site,              *
          * http://www.redhat.com                                     *
          *                                                           *
          *                          ******                           *
          *                          * OK *                           *
          *                          ******                           *
          *                                                           *
          *************************************************************




  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

Then, the following language menu will be displayed. Select the desired language for the installation session (hopefully English), then Tab to move to OK, then press Space or Enter/Return.

Welcome to Red Hat Linux

                    ********** Choose a Language ***********
                    *                                      *
                    * What language should be used during  *
                    * the installation process?            *
                    *                                      *
                    *             English    *             *
                    *             French     *             *
                    *             German     *             *
                    *             Hungarian  *             *
                    *             Icelandic  *             *
                    *             Italian    *             *
                    *             Norwegian  *             *
                    *             Romanian   *             *
                    *                                      *
                    *                ******                *
                    *                * OK *                *
                    *                ******                *
                    *                                      *
                    ****************************************



  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

Select the appropriate keyboard in the menu below:

Welcome to Red Hat Linux

                    ************ Keyboard Type ************
                    *                                     *
                    * What type of keyboard do you have?  *
                    *                                     *
                    *       Slovene               *       *
                    *       tr_f-latin5           *       *
                    *       tr_q-latin5           *       *
                    *       trait                 *       *
                    *       trf                   *       *
                    *       trq                   *       *
                    *       us                    *       *
                    *       uk                    *       *
                    *                                     *
                    *                ******               *
                    *                * OK *               *
                    *                ******               *
                    *                                     *
                    ***************************************



  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

If PCMCIA devices will be required for the installation (such as a CDROM controller, or a network card), have the PCMCIA disk ready and answer yes to the next menu:

Welcome to Red Hat Linux



          ********************** PCMCIA Support **********************
          *                                                          *
          * Do you need to use PCMCIA devices during the install?    *
          * Answer no this question if only need PCMCIA support      *
          * after the install. You do not need install-time PCMCIA   *
          * support if you are installing Red Hat Linux on a laptop  *
          * with a built-in CDROM drive.                             *
          *                                                          *
          *      *******             ******           ********       *
          *      * Yes *             * No *           * Back *       *
          *      *******             ******           ********       *
          *                                                          *
          ************************************************************




  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

Select the Local CD-ROM. Red Hat Linux can be installed without a CD by using other options (especially those contained in bootnet.img), but they are not covered in this text.

Welcome to Red Hat Linux



                       ****** Installation Method *******
                       *                                *
		       * What type of media contains    *
                       * the packages to be installed?  *
                       *                                *
                       *          Local CDROM           *
                       *          Hard drive            *
                       *                                *
                       *     ******       ********      *
                       *     * Ok *       * Back *      *
                       *     ******       ********      *
                       *                                *
                       **********************************










  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

Ensure that the CD is in the drive, and proceed through the next dialog.

Welcome to Red Hat Linux



                       ************** Note **************
                       *                                *
		       * Insert your Red Hat CD into    *
                       * your CD drive now.             *
                       *                                *
                       *    ******         ********     *
                       *    * Ok *         * Back *     *
                       *    ******         ********     *
                       *                                *
                       **********************************










  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

At this point, the “second stage install” begins. Select the install option to configure a new system. The Upgrade option is very effective at bringing an older Red Hat Linux system up to date. The Upgrade option is very simple and straightforward and it is not covered in this text.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                 Select installation path




                      ******** Installation Path ********
                      *                                 *
                      * Would you like to install a     *
                      * new system or upgrade a system  *
                      * which already contains Red Hat  *
                      * Linux 2.0 or later?             *
                      *                                 *
                      *  ***********      ***********   *
                      *  * Install *      * Upgrade *   *
                      *  ***********      ***********   *
                      *                                 *
                      *                                 *
                      ***********************************






  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

For the maximum flexibility during the installation process, choose the “Custom” option below. The other options will automatically partition the drive and install a set of software applications appropriate for either a workstation or server Linux system. Here, we assume the “Custom” option has been chosen.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                Select installation class


                       ******* Installation Class *******
                       *                                *
                       * What type of machine are you   *
                       * installing? For maximum        *
                       * flexibility, choose "Custom".  *
                       *                                *
                       *          Workstation           *
                       *          Server                *
                       *          Custom                *
                       *                                *
                       *    ******         ********     *
                       *    * Ok *         * Back *     *
                       *    ******         ********     *
                       *                                *
                       *                                *
                       **********************************





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If SCSI adapters are present, they must be probed and configured. In this example, we assume that only IDE devices are in use, but the SCSI adapter selection menu will be shown below.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                               Setup SCSI






                      ******* SCSI Configuration ********
                      *                                 *
                      * Do you have any SCSI adapters?  *
                      *                                 *
                      *  ******    *******   ********   *
                      *  * No *    * Yes *   * Back *   *
                      *  ******    *******   ********   *
                      *                                 *
                      *                                 *
                      ***********************************







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If a SCSI adapter is present in the system, its brand must be specified in the following menu:

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                               Setup SCSI


                    ************* Load module *************
                    *                                     *
                    * Which driver should I try?          *
                    *                                     *
                    * Adaptec 152x                      * *
                    * Adaptec 1542                      * *
                    * Adaptec 1740                      * *
                    * Adaptec 2740, 2840, 2940          * *
                    * AdvanSys Adapters                 * *
                    * Always IN2000                     * *
                    *                                     *
                    *     ******           ********       *
                    *     * Ok *           * Back *       *
                    *     ******           ********       *
                    *                                     *
                    *                                     *
                    ***************************************




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At this point, disk partitioning can be performed. This example will use the fdisk session discussed earlier in this chapter.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                        Setup filesystems


          ************************ Disk Setup ************************
          *                                                          *
          * Disk Druid is a tool for partitioning and setting up     *
          * mount points. It is designed to be easier to use than    *
          * Linux's traditional disk partitioning sofware, fdisk,    *
          * as well as more powerful. However, there are some cases  *
          * where fdisk may be preferred.                            *
          *                                                          *
          * Which tool would you like to use?                        *
          *                                                          *
          *    **************          *********        ********     *
          *    * Disk Druid *          * fdisk *        * Back *     *
          *    **************          *********        ********     *
          *                                                          *
          *                                                          *
          ************************************************************





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If multiple hard drives are available on a system, a menu such as the following will be presented allowing a target hard drive to be chosen.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                        Setup filesystems


        *********************** Partition Disks ***********************
        *                                                             *
        * To install Red Hat Linux, you must have at least one        *
        * partition of 150 MB dedicated to Linux. We suggest placing  *
        * that partition on one of the first two hard drives in your  *
        * system so you can boot into Linux with LILO.                *
        *                                                             *
        *     /dev/hda - Model FUJITSU MPA3035ATU - Model FUJITS      *
        *     /dev/hdb - Model WDC AC2120 - Model WDC AC2120          *
        *                                                             *
        *      ********            ********            ********       *
        *      * Done *            * Edit *            * Back *       *
        *      ********            ********            ********       *
        *                                                             *
        *                                                             *
        ***************************************************************





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The disk partitions must be created before Red Hat Linux can be installed. A complete session with the fdisk utility was covered in a previous section of this chapter. Choose either Disk Druid or fdisk. Disk Druid menus can be confusing, but the disk druid menus must be used in the next step to establish filesystem mount points.

After the fdisk session has completed, a mount point must be chosen for each file system. This is done by moving the highlight on the Disk Druid menu to a particular partition, using Tab to move to the “Edit” option, then selecting “Edit” and indicating a mount point. The root file system must be specified with a “/”; the root file system must exist; other file system mount points are optional. DOS FAT partitions can also be mounted.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                        Setup filesystems
*************************** Current Disk Partitions ****************************
*    Mount Point          Device     Requested   Actual         Type           *
*    /dos                  hda1        2047M     2047M      DOS 16-bit >=32  * *
*    /                     hda5         700M      700M      Linux native     * *
*    /home                 hda6         519M      519M      Linux native     * *
*                          hda7          66M       66M      Linux swap       * *
*                          hdb1         119M      119M      Linux native     * *
*                                                                            * *
*                                                                            * *
*                                                                            * *
* Drive Summaries                                                              *
*   Drive      Geom [C/H/S]      Total    Used    Free                         *
*    hda       [  847/128/63]     3335M   3334M      1M     [##########]      **
*    hdb       [  872/  8/35]      119M    119M      0M     [##########]      **
*                                                                             **
*                                                                             **
*                                                                              *
*     *******        ********        **********       ******       ********    *
*     * Add *        * Edit *        * Delete *       * Ok *       * Back *    *
*     *******        ********        **********       ******       ********    *
*                                                                              *
********************************************************************************

    F1-Add    F2-Add NFS    F3-Edit   F4-Delete    F5-Reset    F12-Ok   v 1.00

Once the layout of the filesystems has been completed, the installation program will prompt to format a swap partition. It is strongly recommended that all areas be checked for bad blocks.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                         Setup swap space


        ********************** Active Swap Space **********************
        *                                                             *
        * What partitions would you like to use for swap space? This  *
        * will destroy any information already on the partition.      *
        *                                                             *
        *               Device             Size (k)                   *
        *           [*] /dev/hda7             64480                   *
        *                                                             *
        *           [*] Check for bad blocks during format            *
        *                                                             *
        *            ******                       ********            *
        *            * Ok *                       * Back *            *
        *            ******                       ********            *
        *                                                             *
        *                                                             *
        ***************************************************************





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The installer will then format the swap partition.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                         Setup swap space








         ************************* Formatting *************************
         *                                                            *
         * Formatting swap space on device /tmp/hda7...               *
         *                                                            *
         *                                                            *
         *                                                            *
         **************************************************************








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After the swap space has been formatted, the new partitions themselves must be formatted. On a new installation, all of the Linux partitions should be formatted with bad block checks.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software              Choose partitions to format


       ********************** Partitions To Format **********************
       *                                                                *
       * What partitions would you like to format? We strongly suggest  *
       * formatting all of the system partitions, including /, /usr,    *
       * and /var. There is no need to format /home or /usr/local if    *
       * they have already been configured during a previous install.   *
       *                                                                *
       *       [*] /dev/hda5   /                                        *
       *       [*] /dev/hda6   /home                                    *
       *                                                                *
       *            [*] Check for bad blocks during format              *
       *                                                                *
       *             ******                        ********             *
       *             * Ok *                        * Back *             *
       *             ******                        ********             *
       *                                                                *
       *                                                                *
       ******************************************************************



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When the partition configuration is complete, a list of available components is presented.

A complete install with all packages requires large amounts of space. It is best to choose the installed subsystems carefully as some can be a nusiance to shut down.

A listing of all the packages associated with these subsystems can be found in the /RedHat/base/comps file on the attached CD-ROM.

When the package selection is completed, the partitions will be formatted and the packages will be installed.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software               Choose packages to install
                   ********* Components to Install *********
                   *                                       *
                   * Choose components to install:         *
                   *                                       *
                   * [ ] Printer Support                 * *
                   * [*] X Window System                 * *
                   * [*] GNOME                           * *
                   * [ ] KDE                             * *
                   * [*] Mail/WWW/News Tools             * *
                   * [ ] DOS/Windows Connectivity        * *
                   * [*] File Managers                   * *
                   *                                       *
                   *    [ ] Select individual packages     *
                   *                                       *
                   *       ******           ********       *
                   *       * Ok *           * Back *       *
                   *       ******           ********       *
                   *                                       *
                   *                                       *
                   *****************************************



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The final alert before installation begins advises of the location of the installation log.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                           Install system




                  *************** Install log ***************
                  *                                         *
                  * A complete log of your installation     *
                  * will be in /tmp/install.log after       *
                  * rebooting your system. You may want to  *
                  * keep this file for later reference.     *
                  *                                         *
                  *      ******              ********       *
                  *      * Ok *              * Back *       *
                  *      ******              ********       *
                  *                                         *
                  *                                         *
                  *******************************************






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The formatting of the partitions then begins. If a bad block search is also run, then the formatting could take a few minutes or more.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                           Install system








         ************************** Running ***************************
         *                                                            *
         * Making ext2 filesystem on /dev/hda5...                     *
         *                                                            *
         **************************************************************










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An overlapping file search is then conducted.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                           Install system








         ************************* Processing *************************
         *                                                            *
         * Finding overlapping files...                               *
         *                                                            *
         *                                                            *
         *                                                            *
         **************************************************************








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The installation then begins. An informative message about each individual package is displayed as it is installed. These packages are actually “RPM” files, and these RPMs will be manipulated with a variety of methods in the following chapters.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                           Install system


         *********************** Install Status ***********************
         *                                                            *
         * Package:    filesystem-1.3.4-4                             *
         * Size   :    80k                                            *
         * Summary:    The basic directory layout for a Linux         *
         *             system.                                        *
         *                                                            *
         *                                                            *
         *                                                            *
         *              Packages       Bytes           Time           *
         * Total     :       358        438M        7:51.31           *
         * Completed :         1          0M        0:00.01           *
         * Remaining :       357        438M        7:51.30           *
         *                                                            *
         *                                                            *
         *                                                            *
         **************************************************************




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After the main package installation, the mouse is configured.

mouseconfig 3.9 - (C) 1999 Red Hat Software
                 ************** Configure Mouse ***************
                 *                                            *
                 * What type of mouse do you have?            *
                 *                                            *
                 * No Mouse                                 * *
                 * ALPS GlidePoint (PS/2)                   * *
                 * ASCII MieMouse (serial)                  * *
                 * ASCII MieMouse (PS/2)                    * *
                 * ATI Bus Mouse                            * *
                 * Generic Mouse (serial)                   * *
                 * Generic 3 Button Mouse (serial)          * *
                 * Generic Mouse (PS/2)                     * *
                 *                                            *
                 *           [*] Emulate 3 Buttons?           *
                 *                                            *
                 *    ******      **********      ********    *
                 *    * Ok *      * Cancel *      * Help *    *
                 *    ******      **********      ********    *
                 *                                            *
                 *                                            *
                 **********************************************


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Network services (ethernet or similar media) can then be configured, if desired.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                     Configure networking




                       ***** Network Configuration ******
                       *                                *
                       * Do you want to configure LAN   *
                       * (not dialup) networking for    *
                       * your installed system?         *
                       *                                *
                       * *******    ******   ********   *
                       * * Yes *    * No *   * Back *   *
                       * *******    ******   ********   *
                       *                                *
                       *                                *
                       **********************************







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If network configuration is desired, the installer will attempt to probe the system for a network adapter. With a bit of luck, a successful message like the one below will appear.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                     Configure networking






                      ************** Probe **************
                      *                                 *
                      * A 3com 3c59x (Vortex) card has  *
                      * been found on your system.      *
                      *                                 *
                      *             ******              *
                      *             * Ok *              *
                      *             ******              *
                      *                                 *
                      *                                 *
                      ***********************************






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Basic TCP/IP configuration will begin for the detected network card. The installer presents a list of methods for configuring these basic services. The DHCP and BOOTP options require servers configured to provide these protocols on the local network segment. Here we will choose a static IP.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                     Configure networking




          ********************** Boot Protocol ***********************
          *                                                          *
          * How should the IP information be set? If your system     *
          * administrator gave you an IP address, choose static IP.  *
          *                                                          *
          *                    Static IP address                     *
          *                    BOOTP                                 *
          *                    DHCP                                  *
          *                                                          *
          *           ******                     ********            *
          *           * Ok *                     * Back *            *
          *           ******                     ********            *
          *                                                          *
          *                                                          *
          ************************************************************




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Below is an example of a basic configuration for network services. This information, if entered incorrectly, can have harmful effects upon network traffic. The configuration data should be obtained from a competent administrator, and it should be double-checked. Be cautious.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                     Configure networking


         ********************** Configure TCP/IP **********************
         *                                                            *
         * Please enter the IP configuration for this machine. Each   *
         * item should be entered as an IP address in dotted-decimal  *
         * notation (for example, 1.2.3.4).                           *
         *                                                            *
         *           IP address:           192.168.1.1_____           *
         *           Netmask:              255.255.255.0___           *
         *           Default gateway (IP): 192.168.1.254___           *
         *           Primary nameserver:   192.168.1.1_____           *
         *                                                            *
         *            ******                      ********            *
         *            * Ok *                      * Back *            *
         *            ******                      ********            *
         *                                                            *
         *                                                            *
         **************************************************************




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Additional information is required to completely configure TCP/IP networking. This information is covered in greater detail in Chapter 2.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                     Configure networking


          ******************** Configure Network ********************
          *                                                         *
          * Please enter your domain name, host name, and the IP    *
          * addresses of any additional nameservers. Your host      *
          * name should be a fully-qualified host name, such as     *
          * mybox.mylab.myco.com. If you don't have any additional  *
          * nameservers, leave the nameserver entries blank.        *
          *                                                         *
          *     Domain name:               redhat.com__________     *
          *     Host name:                 porky.redhat.com____     *
          *     Secondary nameserver (IP): 192.168.1.2_________     *
          *     Tertiary nameserver (IP):  192.168.1.3_________     *
          *                                                         *
          *           ******                     ********           *
          *           * Ok *                     * Back *           *
          *           ******                     ********           *
          *                                                         *
          *                                                         *
          ***********************************************************


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Next, the local time zone must be selected. Normally, the PC clock is not set to GMT.

timeconfig 2.7 - (C) 1999 Red Hat Software


                     ******** Configure Timezones ********
                     *                                   *
                     * Format machine time is stored in: *
                     *                                   *
                     * [ ] Hardware clock set to GMT     *
                     *                                   *
                     *  US/Alaska                     *  *
                     *  US/Aleutian                   *  *
                     *  US/Arizona                    *  *
                     *  US/Central                    *  *
                     *  US/East-Indiana               *  *
                     *  US/Eastern                    *  *
                     *                                   *
                     *      ******         ********      *
                     *      * Ok *         * Back *      *
                     *      ******         ********      *
                     *                                   *
                     *                                   *
                     *************************************


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Next, the boot services menu is presented. Various services can be configured to be started when the system boots. This menu can be brought up any time post-installation by entering the ntsysv command.

A description of the available services is provided below.

apmd
Advanced Power Management Daemon - controls system power consumption.

atd
At Daemon - used to schedule one-time jobs to run at a future date.

cron
Cron Daemon - used to schedule repeatitive jobs.

dhcpd
Dynamic Host Control Protocol Daemon - assigns IP addresses and associated information to other hosts on a local network. The daemon will not start without a number of important control files in place. An entry for this daemon will not appear in the initial installation, but will appear later with the ntsysv command if the DHCP subsystem is installed.

gpm
General Purpose Mouse - allows the use of the mouse to cut and paste text on the console (not X Windows).

httpd
Hyper-Text Transport Protocol Daemon - this daemon is the web server.

inet
Internet Superserver - this daemon launches many other Internet-related daemons, including ftpd, telnetd, pop, etc.

keytable
Keytable - this controls the keyboard map.

linuxconf
Linuxconf - Allows configuration data specified in the linuxconf utility to be loaded.

lpd
Line Printer Daemon - the printer spooler.

named
Name Server Daemon - the Berkley Internet Name Server daemon. Installed as a caching-only server out-of-the-box.

netfs
NetFS - this utility mounts any remote NFS, SMB and NCP volumes specified in /etc/fstab.

network
Network - this script brings up networking devices.

nfs
Network File System Daemon - launches user-space NFS daemon. This utility does not control kernel-space NFS services (knfsd). Requires portmap.

pcmcia
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association - configures the PCMCIA cards usually found in laptop computers.

portmap
Portmap - launches the portmapper, which is required for ONC RPC services like NFS and NIS.

postgresql
Postmaster - this script launches the postmaster for the PostgreSQL database system. The postmaster will not launch unless a number of control files are in place.

random
Random Number Seed - maintains the status of the random number generator.

routed
Routing Daemon - this daemon maintains dynamic routes with RIP. This is not needed for static routes.

rstatd
Remote Status Daemon - allows performance measurement by remote machines. Requires portmap.

rusersd
Remote Users Daemon - allows user lookup by remote machines. Requires portmap.

rwhod
Remote Who Daemon - allows user lookup by remote machines.

sendmail
Sendmail - daemon which acts as an electronic Mail Transfer Agent (MTA).

smb
Samba - this script launches smbd and nmbd, which are typically used to share files and printers with Windows systems.

snmpd
Simple Network Management Protocol Daemon - this daemon is used to monitor and control networks.

sound
Sound - this script configures a known sound device. The sndconfig utility must be run successfully before the device will function.

syslog
System Logging Daemon - logs status messages in a variety of locations. The most important is /var/log/messages. Logs are controlled by the logfile rotation system.

xfs
X Font Server - serves fonts for X-Windows. The X Window system will not function without a font server.

ypbind
Network Information Service - allows several machines to share the same /etc/passwd file (and others). Requires portmap. This functionality is better implemented with ssh.
ntsysv 1.0.6 - (C) 1999 Red Hat Software


              ******************** Services *********************
              *                                                 *
              * What services should be automatically started?  *
              *                                                 *
              *                [*] apmd        *                *
              *                [*] atd         *                *
              *                [*] crond       *                *
              *                [*] gpm         *                *
              *                [*] httpd       *                *
              *                [*] inet        *                *
              *                [*] keytable    *                *
              *                [*] linuxconf   *                *
              *                                                 *
              *         ******                 ********         *
              *         * Ok *                 * Back *         *
              *         ******                 ********         *
              *                                                 *
              *                                                 *
              ***************************************************


Press <F1> for more information on a service.

Printer selection is accomplished next. Printer driver support is not as strong in Red Hat Linux as it is in other operating systems. All the printer drivers are configured to emulate a Postscript printer (which is accomplished through the ghostscript utility).

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                        Configure printer






                  ************ Configure Printer ************
                  *                                         *
                  * Would you like to configure a printer?  *
                  *                                         *
                  *   *******       ******      ********    *
                  *   * Yes *       * No *      * Back *    *
                  *   *******       ******      ********    *
                  *                                         *
                  *                                         *
                  *******************************************







  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

Remote printers can be specified. Only a local printer is documented in this text.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                        Configure printer




                    ****** Select Printer Connection ******
                    *                                     *
                    * How is this printer connected?      *
                    *                                     *
                    *          Local                      *
                    *          Remote lpd                 *
                    *          SMB/Windows 95/NT          *
                    *          NetWare                    *
                    *                                     *
                    *     ******           ********       *
                    *     * Ok *           * Back *       *
                    *     ******           ********       *
                    *                                     *
                    *                                     *
                    ***************************************




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The print queue is selected next. The standard names are usually sufficient.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                        Configure printer


            ************** Standard Printer Options ***************
            *                                                     *
            * Every print queue (which print jobs are directed    *
            * to) needs a name (often lp) and a spool directory   *
            * associated with it. What name and directory should  *
            * be used for this queue?                             *
            *                                                     *
            *        Name of queue:   lp__________________        *
            *        Spool directory: /var/spool/lpd/lp___        *
            *                                                     *
            *         ******                   ********           *
            *         * Ok *                   * Back *           *
            *         ******                   ********           *
            *                                                     *
            *                                                     *
            *******************************************************





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The detected ports are displayed next.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                        Configure printer


               ************* Local Printer Device **************
               *                                               *
               * What device is your printer connected to      *
               * (note that /dev/lp0 is equivalent to LPT1:)?  *
               *                                               *
               *         Printer Device: /dev/lp0_______       *
               *                                               *
               *   Auto-detected ports:                        *
               *                                               *
               *     /dev/lp0: Detected                        *
               *     /dev/lp1: Not Detected                    *
               *     /dev/lp2: Not Detected                    *
               *                                               *
               *         ******               ********         *
               *         * Ok *               * Back *         *
               *         ******               ********         *
               *                                               *
               *                                               *
               *************************************************


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The available printer drivers are displayed for selection. If the exact model of the attached printer is not available in the list, try selecting a previous model number from the same manufacturer. Also, if the attached printer is advertised to be compatible with another manufacturer's printer, select the equivalent model.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                        Configure printer
           ******************* Configure Printer *******************
           *                                                       *
           * What type of printer do you have?                     *
           *                                                       *
           *   HP PaintJet                                     *   *
           *   HP PaintJet XL                                  *   *
           *   HP PaintJet XL300 and DeskJet 1200C             *   *
           *   IBM 3853 JetPrinter                             *   *
           *   Imagen ImPress                                  *   *
           *   Mitsubishi CP50                                 *   *
           *   NEC P6/P6+/P60                                  *   *
           *   NEC Prinwriter 2X (UP)                          *   *
           *   Okidata Microline 182                           *   *
           *   PostScript printer                              *   *
           *                                                       *
           *           ******                   ********           *
           *           * Ok *                   * Back *           *
           *           ******                   ********           *
           *                                                       *
           *                                                       *
           *********************************************************


<F1> will give you information on a particular printer type

The paper size for the new printer can then be configured.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                        Configure printer
            ****************** PostScript printer ******************
            *                                                      *
            * You may now configure the paper size and resolution  *
            * for this printer.                                    *
            *                                                      *
            *           Paper Size            Resolution           *
            *             letter               300x 300            *
            *             legal                600x 600            *
            *             ledger              1200x1200            *
            *             a3                                       *
            *             a4                                       *
            *                                                      *
            *           [ ] Fix stair-stepping of text?            *
            *                                                      *
            *          ******                   ********           *
            *          * Ok *                   * Back *           *
            *          ******                   ********           *
            *                                                      *
            *                                                      *
            ********************************************************



<F1> will give you information on this printer driver.

Finally, a printer confirmation dialog is presented.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                        Configure printer


          *************** Verify Printer Configuration ***************
          *                                                          *
          * Please verify that this printer information is correct:  *
          *                                                          *
          *   Printer type:    LOCAL                                 *
          *   Queue:           lp                                    *
          *   Spool directory: /var/spool/lpd/lp                     *
          *   Printer device   /dev/lp0                              *
          *   Printer driver:  PostScript printer                    *
          *   Paper size:      letter                                *
          *   Resolution:      300x300                               *
          *   Bits per pixel:  Default                               *
          *                                                          *
          *          ******                      ********            *
          *          * Ok *                      * Back *            *
          *          ******                      ********            *
          *                                                          *
          *                                                          *
          ************************************************************


  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

The root password must be chosen. The password should not be obvious, especially if the machine is connected to the Internet. Mixtures of letters, numbers, and punctuation marks are best. The password must be entered twice, and the two entries must be identical. If you've forgotten it, you can circumvent the root password by entering “linux single” at the LILO boot prompt.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                        Set root password


                 *************** Root Password ****************
                 *                                            *
                 * Pick a root password. You must type it     *
                 * twice to ensure you know what it is and    *
                 * didn't make a mistake in typing. Remember  *
                 * that the root password is a critical part  *
                 * of system security!                        *
                 *                                            *
                 * Password:         ________________________ *
                 * Password (again): ________________________ *
                 *                                            *
                 *        ******              ********        *
                 *        * Ok *              * Back *        *
                 *        ******              ********        *
                 *                                            *
                 *                                            *
                 **********************************************




  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

The format of the system password database can be specified with the following dialog. For maximum compatibility with other UNIX installations, disable all the options.

authconfig 1.8 - (c) 1999 Red Hat Software


                  ****** Authentication Configuration *******
                  *                                         *
                  *                                         *
                  * [ ] Enable NIS                          *
                  *   NIS Domain: _________________________ *
                  *   NIS Server: [*] Request via broadcast *
                  *       or use: _________________________ *
                  *                                         *
                  * [*] Use Shadow Passwords                *
                  *                                         *
                  * [*] Enable MD5 Passwords                *
                  *                                         *
                  *       ******             ********       *
                  *       * Ok *             * Back *       *
                  *       ******             ********       *
                  *                                         *
                  *                                         *
                  *******************************************



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It is highly recommended that a boot disk be created, especially if the installation involved SCSI devices.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                          Create bootdisk


       *************************** Bootdisk ****************************
       *                                                               *
       * A custom bootdisk provides a way of booting into your Linux   *
       * system without depending on the normal bootloader. This is    *
       * useful if you don't want to install lilo on your system,      *
       * another operating system removes lilo, or lilo doesn't work   *
       * with your hardware configuration. A custom bootdisk can also  *
       * be used with the Red Hat rescue image, making it much easier  *
       * to recover from severe system failures.                       *
       *                                                               *
       * Would you like to create a bootdisk for your system?          *
       *                                                               *
       *       *******              ******             ********        *
       *       * Yes *              * No *             * Back *        *
       *       *******              ******             ********        *
       *                                                               *
       *                                                               *
       *****************************************************************



  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

The bootdisk is then created.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                          Create bootdisk








                       ************ Bootdisk ************
                       *                                *
                       * Creating bootdisk...           *
                       *                                *
                       **********************************










  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

LILO should normally be installed on the Master Boot Record of the primary hard drive.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                       Install bootloader




             ***************** Lilo Installation ******************
             *                                                    *
             * Where do you want to install the bootloader?       *
             *                                                    *
             * /dev/hda            Master Boot Record             *
             * /dev/hda5           First sector of boot partition *
             *                                                    *
             *     ******          ********         ********      *
             *     * Ok *          * Skip *         * Back *      *
             *     ******          ********         ********      *
             *                                                    *
             *                                                    *
             ******************************************************






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One need for special options is if the system has more than 64 megabytes of RAM memory. If so, this option should be passed here. For example, if a machine with 128MB is installed, the parameter to pass is mem=128M.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                       Install bootloader


            ****************** Lilo Installation ******************
            *                                                     *
            * A few systems will need to pass special options to  *
            * the kernel at boot time for the system to function  *
            * properly. If you need to pass boot options to the   *
            * kernel, enter them now. If you don't need any or    *
            * aren't sure, leave this blank.                      *
            *                                                     *
            *  ________________________________________________   *
            *                                                     *
            *  [ ] Use linear mode (needed for some SCSI drives)  *
            *                                                     *
            *          ******                   ********          *
            *          * Ok *                   * Back *          *
            *          ******                   ********          *
            *                                                     *
            *                                                     *
            *******************************************************

  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

Other operating systems can be booted by LILO. Select the operating systems to make available to LILO here.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                       Install bootloader
        ********************* Bootable Partitions **********************
        *                                                              *
        * The boot manager Red Hat uses can boot other operating       *
        * systems as well. You need to tell me what partitions you     *
        * would like to be able to boot and what label you want to     *
        * use for each of them.                                        *
        *                                                              *
        * Device      Partition type            Default Boot label     *
        * /dev/hda1   DOS 16-bit >=32                   dos         *  *
        * /dev/hda5   Linux native                 *    linux       *  *
        * /dev/hdb1   Linux native                                  *  *
        *                                                           *  *
        *                                                           *  *
        *                                                           *  *
        *                                                              *
        *       ******             ********             ********       *
        *       * Ok *             * Edit *             * Back *       *
        *       ******             ********             ********       *
        *                                                              *
        *                                                              *
        ****************************************************************


<F2> Selects the default partition

In the last stage, X Windows is configured. With luck, the system graphics adapter is detected and an RPM with an appropriate X server is installed.

Xconfigurator 4.2.3 - (C) 1999 Red Hat Software and others




                       *********** PCI Probe ************
                       *                                *
                       * PCI probing found a:           *
                       *                                *
                       *   PCI Entry: Trio32/Trio64     *
                       *   X Server : S3                *
                       *                                *
                       *            ******              *
                       *            * Ok *              *
                       *            ******              *
                       *                                *
                       *                                *
                       **********************************






  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements   |  <Space> selects   |  <F12> next screen

The next step is the selection of a monitor. If the monitor is not in the following list then choose either “Generic” or “Generic Multisync”.

Xconfigurator 4.2.3 - (C) 1999 Red Hat Software and others


     *************************** Monitor Setup ****************************
     *                                                                    *
     * What type of monitor do you have? If you would rather specify the  *
     * sync frequencies of your monitor, choose "Custom" from the list.   *
     *                                                                    *
     *          Mitsubishi Diamond Plus 100 (TFW1105)          *          *
     *          Mitsubishi Diamond Plus 70 (TF-7700P)          *          *
     *          Mitsubishi Diamond Plus 71 (TFV6708)           *          *
     *          Mitsubishi Diamond Plus 72 (TFV8705)           *          *
     *          Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 1000 (TFX1105)          *          *
     *          Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 1010 (TUX1107)          *          *
     *          Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 14 (FW6405)             *          *
     *                                                                    *
     *             ******                           ********              *
     *             * Ok *                           * Back *              *
     *             ******                           ********              *
     *                                                                    *
     *                                                                    *
     **********************************************************************


  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements   |  <Space> selects   |  <F12> next screen

A graphics probe will then be launched to determine the best screen resolution.

Xconfigurator 4.2.3 - (C) 1999 Red Hat Software and others




                     ********* Probing to begin **********
                     *                                   *
                     * Xconfigurator will now run the X  *
                     * server you selected to probe      *
                     * various information about your    *
                     * video card. It is normal for the  *
                     * screen to blink several times.    *
                     *                                   *
                     *              ******               *
                     *              * Ok *               *
                     *              ******               *
                     *                                   *
                     *                                   *
                     *************************************


 


  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements   |  <Space> selects   |  <F12> next screen

The best probed resolution will then be presented (which hopefully is better than 640x480).

Xconfigurator 4.2.3 - (C) 1999 Red Hat Software and others


        *********************** Probing finished ***********************
        *                                                              *
        * Xconfigurator has sucessfully probed your video card. The    *
        * default video mode will be:                                  *
        *                                                              *
        *    Color Depth: 16 bits per pixel                            *
        *    Resolution : 1024x768                                     *
        *                                                              *
        * Do you want to accept this setting, or select for yourself?  *
        *                                                              *
        *   ***************        *****************       ********    *
        *   * Use Default *        * Let Me Choose *       * Back *    *
        *   ***************        *****************       ********    *
        *                                                              *
        *                                                              *
        ****************************************************************





  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements   |  <Space> selects   |  <F12> next screen

The X server will then be started. While it is active, the user will be presented with an option to boot the system directly into X windows.

Xconfigurator 4.2.3 - (C) 1999 Red Hat Software and others






                      *********** Starting X ************
                      *                                 *
                      * Xconfigurator will now start X  *
                      * to test your configuration.     *
                      *                                 *
                      *    ******          ********     *
                      *    * Ok *          * Skip *     *
                      *    ******          ********     *
                      *                                 *
                      *                                 *
                      ***********************************






  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements   |  <Space> selects   |  <F12> next screen

The X server is the last installation component. When it is complete, the installation is concluded.

Red Hat Linux (C) 1999 Red Hat Software                                 Complete


          ************************** Done ***************************
          *                                                         *
          * Congratulations, installation is complete.              *
          *                                                         *
          * Remove the boot media and press return to reboot. For   *
          * information on fixes which are available for this       *
          * release of Red Hat Linux, consult the Errata available  *
          * from http://www.redhat.com.                             *
          *                                                         *
          * Information on configuring your system is available in  *
          * the post install chapter of the Official Red Hat Linux  *
          * User's Guide.                                           *
          *                                                         *
          *                         ******                          *
          *                         * Ok *                          *
          *                         ******                          *
          *                                                         *
          *                                                         *
          ***********************************************************


  <Tab>/<Alt-Tab> between elements  | <Space> selects | <F12> next screen

At this point, remove all the installation media (including the CD) and reboot the system. With any luck, the computer will boot to a “Login” prompt, and the root user can login and begin to add new users (with the “useradd” command, or through a number of GUI utilities).

It is also possible to enter “linux single” at the LILO prompt to boot the system without a password into single user mode. Linux will boot to a bash prompt (owned by root) and all of the file systems will be mounted, but no network services will be started.

“Cloning” a Running Red Hat System

If your Red Hat Linux system runs only on one hard drive, it is easy to clone it onto a second.

First, unmount all extraneous file systems (such as CD-ROMs, DOS FAT file systems, NFS connections, and anything else that is not directly related to the local installation).

Next, obtain a boot disk for the system. The disk created during the installation is appropriate. Another can be created with the mkbootdisk utility. On IDE systems, the Red Hat Linux boot floppy can be used as a boot disk by passing it the parameters “linux single root=/dev/hdXX initrd=” (substitute the partition of the root file system for “XX”), but this trick will not work if there are active file systems on SCSI devices.

Next, run the following commands as root:

cd /
ls | grep -v proc > /root/files
mkdir /drive

Edit the list of files in /root/files and remove any extra directories that should not be copied. The /proc directory is explicitly omitted.

Next, shutdown the system and install the new drive. Boot Linux and use the fdisk utility to create the partitions, then use mke2fs -c to create file systems on the new drive. The new drive should probably have the same partition layout as the old drive (if not, then the new /etc/fstab must be modified). Be careful not to accidentally wipe out areas on the source drive when running these commands.

Take the system into single user mode by running the following command as root:

init 1

Mount the partitions on the new drive onto the /drive directory. Mount them with the same hierarchy that the source drive is mounted. For example, if a file-system on the source drive holds /home, then a file-system on the target drive should be mounted as /drive/home.

To clone the drive, enter the following commands:

cd /
tar cf - `cat /root/files` | (cd /drive; tar xvpf -)

When the copy completes, make any necessary modifications to /drive/etc/fstab (none should be required unless the partition arrangement differs), then shutdown the system. Remove the source drive and install the target drive as the boot drive (as the primary master on an IDE system, or as ID 0 on SCSI). Boot with the boot diskette.

Lastly, login to the new system as root and run the lilo command. Remove the boot diskette and reboot. The new drive should be functionally equivalent to the old one.

RPM Basics and Red Hat Errata

The Redhat Package Manager (RPM) is a powerful system that allows software installation and upgrades to be applied with a minimum of effort. It is a software distribution scheme that allows source code to be distributed in a pristine original format, but also encompasses binary distributions which allow for extremely rapid installation.

RPM has become so popular that several other Linux distributions have endorsed it as their preferred installation method. There are also utilities that convert packages between RPM and the competing Debian DEB package format.

All the RPM packages that make up Red Hat Linux 6.0 are contained in the RedHat/RPMS directory on the CD-ROM included with this text. For example, one of the packages that is included is the Samba distribution in the samba-1.9.18p10-3.i386.rpm file. The various extensions on the RPM file identify the processor architecture for which it was produced (alpha, sparc, or i386) or if it is a source distribution (src).

It is assumed in this section (and most of this text) that the Intel 386 architecture is the target platform.

Following is a list of the more common ways that RPM is used:

rpm -Uvh package.i386.rpm
This syntax will cause RPM to either install or upgrade a package file.

rpm -e package
This option to RPM will remove the installed package from the system. Notice the lack of the .386.rpm extension.

rpm -q package
Installed packages can be queried with this method. Release numbers can be omitted, so the command rpm -q samba might produce the result samba-1.9.18p10-3 if the package was installed.

rpm -qa
A list of all installed packages on the system can be generated with this command. It is sometimes useful to pipe the output to either sort, grep, or more.

rpm -ql package
A list of all files that have been installed by a package will be generated.

rpm -qf file
The name of the package that installed a particular file will be generated.

rpm -qpl package.i386.rpm
A list of all files included in a package file will be generated.

rpm -qi package
A detailed description of an installed package will be generated.

rpm -qpi package.i386.rpm
A detailed description of a package file will be generated.

rpm2cpio package.src.rpm
Individual files within a package can be extracted with this utility. It is most useful with source RPMs. The most common usage is “rpm2cpio package.i386.rpm | cpio -i” which will extract all included files in the current directory.

rpm --rebuild package.src.rpm
Unpack and build a binary RPM distribution file under /usr/src/redhat.

One of the most important post-installation uses of the RPM format are security patches issued by Red Hat. Information about the patches can usually be found in the support areas at the Red Hat website, and the patches themselves are located at ftp://ftp.redhat.com/redhat/updates/6.0/i386 at the time that this text was composed. An image of the updates directory is included on the CD-ROM.

To give an example, a security vulnerability was found in the Samba distribution that was included with Red Hat Linux 6.0. To quote the information at the Red Hat website:

New netscape packages are available. While these are not specifically security updates, among the changes listed are “Fixes to improve security”; therefore it is recommended that users update to the new packages.

The patched netscape distribution can be found in the updates/netscape-common-4.6-1.i386.rpm and updates/netscape-communicator-4.6-1.i386.rpm files on the CD-ROM included with this text. To install the updated Netscape distribution, enter the following commands as root:

rpm -Uvh netscape-common-4.6-1.i386.rpm
rpm -Uvh netscape-communicator-4.6-1.i386.rpm

Generally, this syntax for RPM is used to upgrade everything except the Linux kernel. Kernel updates are of sufficient complexity that it is probably preferable to download the true kernel source and build kernel images from them. This process is documented in Chapter 10. Also, be advised that the Linux kernel source itself is available as an RPM, but kernel source patches commonly will not run against these packaged versions as they do not contain all source files.

Also, Netscape installations (all versions) crash on Java pages in Red Hat Linux 6.0. To fix this problem, run the following command as root:

chkfontpath --add /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi

Setting the Time

It is quite a simple thing to set the clock in the BIOS on a PC. However, synchronizing clocks on a large network of PCs can be much more complex.

Red Hat Linux provides several utilities that set the system time based upon data received over the internet. All must be run by root, as the root user is the only user allowed to modify the system time. The simplest invocation is as follows:

/usr/bin/rdate -s time.nist.gov; /usr/sbin/setclock

These commands first set Linux's time, then set the BIOS time. The two clocks are separate; Linux reads the BIOS time only at boot. This command can be automated by setting a crontab:

echo '0 3 * * * /usr/bin/rdate -s time.nist.gov; /usr/sbin/setclock' > ~/crontab
crontab ~/crontab

The above commands will cause the date to be adjusted at 3 a.m. every day. The command removes any previously existing crontab; see the crontab manual pages for details.

For those who are especially concerned with keeping accurate time, it will be beneficial to load the Network Time Protocol RPM package:

rpm -Uvh xntp3-5.93-12.i386.rpm

Then, select a server from the list published at http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/ntp/servers.html (be sure to select from the appropriate strata). For example one might choose the ntp host tock.cs.unlv.edu, and issue the following command:

ntpdate tock.cs.unlv.edu

With the xntp package, it is also possible to run the xntpd daemon which will keep the system time continuously updated. The configuration of xntpd is beyond the scope of this book.

Advice on Editors

Editing text files is a critical operation within UNIX, especially for an administrator.

For serious UNIX aficionados, vi is the one true editor. It is practically guaranteed to be installed on any version of UNIX available.

However, vi itself is not free software, and it is generally not included with open-sourced versions of UNIX. Other versions of Linux include clones of vi, with esoteric names such as vile, elvis or nvi.

Red Hat Linux uses vim which is short for “VI Improved,”, and improved it is. There is a wonderful tutorial for novice users that is included in the vim package. Any user can start the tutorial by issuing the following commands:

cp /usr/doc/vim-common-5.3/tutor/tutor ~
vi ~/tutor

The behavior of the bash shell can be set to mimic vi if the root user issues the following commands:

mv /etc/inputrc /etc/inputrc.old
echo 'set editing-mode vi' > /etc/inputrc

All shells invoked after this point can use vi-style cursor movement commands (you must press the escape key, then “j” or “k” to cycle through commands, rather than using the arrows directly). This affects not only the shell, but also every application that uses the GNU Readline library (such as gdb, psql, sqsh, etc).

If all references to the INPUTRC environment variable are removed from /etc/profile, then each user can set an .inputrc file in their home directory with their shell editing settings (which was the default behavior in previous versions of Red Hat Linux). Additional information on the format of these files is available in the man readline manual pages.

However, for those unfortunate miscreants with the audacity to look elsewhere for their editing tools, there are a few alternatives.

For the truly uninitiated, there is the pico editor that is included with the pine mail client. In its favor, pico has a very handy justification tool and an easy spelling checker. It is also almost trivially easy to learn. However, it is otherwise sorely lacking in features and flexibility. When using pico to edit important system files, it is usually much safer to call it with the single argument pico -w which will disable its habit of wrapping long lines.

The basic X-Windows installation also includes xedit, but it is not really very powerful.

The apparent GNU-endorsed editing environment is emacs. emacs is extremely powerful, but it is also big. Very big. It includes a LISP interpreter and has modes that run in character or X-Windows.

There are many choices in editors, but care should be taken in the final selection. Availability and features will soon come to be much more important than ease of use.